The $700,000 joint study systematically investigated the characteristics of smoke and how materials used in modern residential settings have changed the way fires behave in homes. The year-long “Smoke Characterization Project” studied 27 synthetic and natural materials and various combinations of materials now more commonly found in homes.
Until recently, the organizations note, these different smoke characteristics couldn’t be studied in such detail.
According to the organizations, UL invested more than $500,000 to conduct the study and to secure the latest scientific measurement equipment. “With this advanced analytical ability,” the organizations assert that “UL’s fire science experts were able to investigate the chemical and physical properties of smoke at a new level of sophistication.”
“This review is the first of its kind to study such a wide range of materials now found in homes,” said Kathleen Almand, executive director of FPRF. “What we are learning will enable public safety officials to further develop education and training programs regarding the use of smoke alarms in residential structures and provide valuable data to fire science engineers as they strive to develop new smoke detection technologies.”
According to John Drengenberg, UL’s manager of consumer affairs, “The initial results of this project reflect that smoke can no longer be characterized just by color or density, but that smoke is highly complex and chemically different based on each unique fire event.”
“From the sheer amount of data we’ve gathered, we believe the results will change the way the fire community perceives smoke produced in home fires, which could further reduce the risk of injury or loss of life due to fires,” Drengenberg said.
Drengenberg said the study also will help material scientists better understand how materials decompose in residential fires and may lead to the development of safer materials in the home.
Escape Times Are Getting Shorter
The Smoke Characterization Project followed a 2004 study conducted by the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) that indicated that fires in modern homes smolder longer, then burn hotter and faster than what was typical when smoke alarms were first introduced.
The NIST study also concluded that because fires could grow more rapidly, the time needed to escape some types of fires has been reduced from approximately 17 minutes to as little as 3 minutes in certain situations.
“With this Smoke Characterization Project, UL and FPRF are helping move fire science to a whole new level,” said Chief Jim Harmes, president of International Association of Fire Chiefs. “Home furnishings and products constructed from new synthetic materials and formulations are growing in popularity. This project has provided the data and measurement techniques needed to more fully assess a burning material's impact on detection.”
Smoke Alarms Play a Vital Role
Fire officials agree that smoke alarms play a vital role in reducing deaths and injuries from fires – an almost 50 percent decrease in fire deaths has been attributed to smoke alarms since the mid-1970s.
Currently, about 95 percent of U.S. homes are estimated to have at least one smoke alarm, employing either photoelectric sensors – which are generally more effective for detecting smoldering fires – or ionization sensors, which are more sensitive to open flames. Smoke alarm manufacturers now make alarms that combine both technologies.
Drengenberg emphasized that, regardless of the technology used, a properly installed smoke alarm system remains one of the most effective ways to protect families from the risk of residential fires.
“Underwriters Laboratories and FPRF recommend residential homes have both smoke alarm technologies installed where appropriate,” Drengenberg said. “It is generally recommended that every residence have a smoke alarms outside every sleeping area, and at least one on every floor.”
Almand also suggested that owners of multi-level homes should consider interconnected smoke alarms with wired or wireless technology to provide simultaneous response in case of a fire, regardless of where the fire begins.
The report can be downloaded from http://www.nfpa.org.