The report, Expert Forecast on Emerging Chemical Risks, identifies the main groups of substances that could pose new and increasing risks to workers, contributing to diseases ranging from allergies, asthma and infertility to cancers. Dangerous substances not only are found in the chemical industry, but also in occupations such as farming, nursing, construction and in many small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) outside the chemical industry.
“It is estimated that each year there are 74,000 work-related deaths linked to hazardous substances encountered in the workplace. This means that 10 times more people die from dangerous substances than from workplace accidents,” said Jukka Takala, EU-OSHA director. “Many companies do not give enough consideration to the elimination or substitution of hazardous substances. Management of chemical risks is particularly poor in SMEs and subcontractor firms.”
About 15 percent of European workers report handling chemical products for a quarter of the time they spend at work, while 10 percent report inhaling vapors and 19 percent report breathing in dust, fumes and smoke in their workplaces.
Nanotechnology, Chemical Risks
The report, established by 49 experts across Europe, puts nanoparticles at the top of the list of substances from which workers need protection. Nanotechnology is used for example in cosmetics and IT products and is expected to grow rapidly into a global, multibillion-euro market. While more research into the degree of damage from nanoparticles on human health is needed, sufficient information to develop interim working practices to reduce workplace exposure is available.
In many professions workers’ skin is exposed to chemicals leading to an increase in the numbers affected by allergic diseases. It is estimated that chemicals are responsible for 80-90 percent of skin diseases, which rank second (13.6 percent) on the scale of occupational diseases, following musculoskeletal disorders. Even so, there are no agreed scientific methods for assessing the effect of these substances on the skin or for setting safe dermal exposure levels.
The forecast also highlights substances likely to cause cancers, such as diesel exhausts. As to reprotoxicants, substances that can damage reproductive health, the level of awareness is still very scarce and stigmatized as a women health issue. They are too rarely considered in workplace risk assessments and in prevention.
Occupations of emerging concern, where workers face high risk of coming into contact with hazardous substances include waste management, construction and service activities such as cleaning or home nursing.
Combined exposures to several chemicals are the rule rather than exception and, when considering each risk independently, the true dimension is likely to be underestimated. Today, concern about multiple exposures is increasing. This was also shown in EU-OSHA’s forecasts on biological, physical and psychosocial emerging risks. A larger-scale foresight study begins this year and will focus on workplace risks posed by new technologies over the next ten years.